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加拿大西部快乐8彩票控:非谓语动词ppt

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  • 更新时间:2018-07-05
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  • 关键提要:非谓语动词,非谓语
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这是非谓语动词ppt下载,主要介绍了命题规律;命题趋势;解题思路;分词、不定式作宾补用法要点;不定式、现在分词作宾补小窍门,欢迎点击下载。

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非谓语动词ppt

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★命题规律
1.考查立意较低,主要考查的是非谓语的一些最基本的用法。但是,题目的设置注重了情景化和结构复杂化,加大了考生对题干句的理解难度。
2.设问的角度呈现出多样化趋势,不仅仅是非谓语间的互相干扰。
★命题趋势
不容置疑,高考将继续加强对非谓语动词的考查,试题的特征将继续呈现出“情景化”和“设问角度的多样化”的趋势,但试题的难度将会有所控制。
③ have sb. do sth. (get sb. to do sth. ) 使/让/叫某人去做某事
如:Mother had me go to the shop and buy some salt.
I can’t get him to stop smoking. He won’t listen to me.
二、下列动词后跟带to 的不定式作补语:
advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, intend, invite, like, love, order, persuade, prefer, require, teach, tell, want, warn, wish, 等。如:
① An army spokesman stressed that all the soldiers had been ordered to issue clear warning before firing any shots.
② The teacher asked us not to make so much noise.
③ The flu is believed to be caused by viruses that like to reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and throat.
三、不定式、现在分词作宾补小窍门
下列动词后在主动语态中用不带to 的不定式作补语,但在被动语态中要加上to:
它们是“吾看三室两厅一感觉”——5看(look at, see, watch, notice, observe);3使(make, let, have);2听(listen to, hear);1感觉(fell)。以上动词还可用现在分词作宾语补足语(5+3+2+1-2+4):即以上动词除let, make 外都可以用现在分词作宾语补足语,此外find, catch, keep, have 也可以用现在分词作宾语补足语。
如:At that time, I found him crying in the street.
He was caught stealing. I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for such a long time.
The missing boys were last seen playing near the river.
★不定式、分词作定语用法要点
一、不定式作定语
1.作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点、工具等,不定式后面须有相应的介词。如:
The Browns have a comfortable house to live in.
There is nothing to worry about.
Please give me a knife to cut with.
Here is some paper for you to write on.
但是,不定式所修饰的名词如果是time, place 或way时,不定式后面的介词习惯上省去。如:He had no money and no place to live (in).
We found a way to solve this problem (in).
2.当作定语的不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的承受者时,不定式既可以用主动语态,也可用被动语态,但其含义有所不同。试比较:
Have you anything to send ? 你有什么东西要寄吗?(不定式to send 的动作执行者是“你”)
Have you anything to be sent ? 你有什么要(我或别人)寄的东西吗?
(不定式to be sent 的动作执行者是“我”或“别人”)
3.用不定式作定语的几种情况:
(1)不定式表将来:
I borrowed some books to read in my holidays
(2)用来修饰被序数词、最高级或no, all, any 等限定的中心词。如:
He was the best man to do the job.
She was the first woman to win the gold medal in the Olympic Games.
Women and children were the first to get into it.
(3)用来修饰的词是抽象名词时,常见的有:ability, chance, idea, fact, excuse, promise, answer, reply, attempt, belief, way, reason, moment, time 等。如:
Do you have the ability to read English ?
I have a chance to go sight –seeing.
二、分词作定语
1.作定语的及物动词分词形式为:
doing(表示被修饰的名词与分词为主动关系)
being done(表示被修饰的名词与分词为被动关系且表正                         在进行时)
done(表示被修饰的名词与分词为被动关系且表完成时)
如:
The houses being built are for the teachers.
The broken glass is Tom’s.
I have never seen a more moving movie.
2.作定语的不及物动词分词形式为:doing 和done
   doing 表示正在进行;done表示已经完成。如:
falling leaves 正落的叶子           fallen leaves 落下的叶子
boiling water 正沸腾的水           boiled water 沸腾过的水(白开水)
三、不定式、过去分词和现在分词被动式作定语的区别
to be done(表示一个未来的动作)
done表示的动作或是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生,或是没有一定的时间性。
being done(表示的动作正在发生或是与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生)
如:
He is a man loved and respected by all.
Listen ! The song being sung is very popular with the students.
The question to be discussed at the tomorrow’s meeting is a very important one.
★不定式、动名词作宾语用法要点
一、下面动词只能用不定式作宾语,请牢记下列小诗:
决心学会想希望,拒绝设法愿假装。
主动答应选计划,同意请求帮一帮。
decide / determine, learn, want, expect / hope / wish, refuse, manage, care, pretend, offer, promise, choose, plan, agree, ask / beg, help
此外,afford, strive(斗争) 等也要用不定式作宾语。例如:
① She pretended not to see me when I passed by.
② We agreed to meet here but so far she hasn’t turned up yet.
二、下列动词只能用动名词作宾语,请牢记下列小诗:
考虑建议盼原谅,承认推迟没得想。避免错过继续练,否认完成停欣赏,不禁介意准逃亡。
consider / suggest / advise, look forward to, excuse, pardon, admit, delay/ put off, fancy, avoid, miss, keep / keep on, practise, deny, finish, enjoy / appreciate, can’t help, mind, allow / permit, escape, imagine, forbid, risk
此外be used to, look forward to, lead to, devote to, stick to, object to, get down to, pay attention to, can’t stand (无法忍受), give up, feel like, insist on, put off, thank you for, apologize for, be busy (in), have difficulty / trouble (in), have a good / wonderful /hard time (in)等动词词组也要用动名词作宾语
三、下列动词或词组既可以跟动名词作宾语,也可以跟不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别,要特别注意。
1. forget to do sth. 忘记去做某事       
   forget doing sth.   忘记已经做过某事
2.remember to do sth. 记住去做某事      
       remember doing sth. 记得曾经做过某事
3. stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事      
   stop doing sth. 停止做一件事情
4.go on to do sth. (做完某事)接着做另一件事
   go on doing sth.继续做同一件事(=go on with sth.)
5.try to do sth. 努力/试图做某事         
   try doing sth. 尝试着做某事
    6.regret to do sth. 后悔/遗憾去做某事      忘记停止继续试
   regret doing sth. 后悔做过某事             后悔意思有不同
7.mean to do sth. 意欲/想/企图做某事     
   mean doing sth. 意味着做某事
8.can’t help to do sth. 不能帮助做某事     
   can’t help doing sth. 情不自禁地做某事
四.动词like, love, prefer 后接不定式或动名词作宾语均可。如表示经常性的行为可用动名词,如表示具体的行为常用动词不定式。但要注意:如果like, love, prefer 前有would /should 后面则应接动词不定式。如:
I like swimming, but I don’t like to swim this afternoon.
I’d like to go swimming this weekend.
五.在动词allow, advise, forbid, permit 后直接跟动名词形式作宾语,如果后面有名词或代词作宾语,其后用动词不定式作宾语补足语。即:
allow / advise /forbid / permit doing sth.
allow / advise /forbid / permit sb. to do sth.
如:We don’t allow smoking here.
We don’t allow students to smoke.
六.动词need, require, want 的用法
(1)need, require, want “需要”
     need / require / want doing / to be done
  (2)need(需要) require (要求)want (想要)
      need / require / want sb. to do sth.
be worth + n. (表示钱数或相当于钱数的名词)  
be worth doing                  
 be worthy of being done     
be worthy of + n. 值得……       
be worthy to be done
如:The window needs / requires / wants cleaning.
The window needs / requires / wants to be cleaned.
七 、动词不定式作动词tell, show, understand, explain, teach, learn, advise, discuss, ask, decide, wonder, find out 等词的宾语时,前面常带wh – 引导词。即how, what, whether, where, when, who 等 + to do。但why + 不带to 的不定式
注意此用法的不定式的逻辑主语需与主句的主语或宾语保持一致,否则用宾语从句。例如:
He showed us how to do the work. ( = He showed us how we should do the work.)
I don’t know what to do.
( = I don’t know what I’ll do.)
Can you tell me why do it ?
八。动词不定式在介词but, other than 后面时,如果介词之前有行为动词do 的某种形式,那么介词后的不定式不带to,否则就要带to。另外在can’t choose but, can’t help but, can’t but 后面的不定式也要省略to。如:
We could do nothing but / other than wait.
We had nothing to do but / other than wait.
We have no choice but to wait.
I can’t choose but laugh.
★不定式、分词作状语用法要点
一、不定式作状语
He sat down to have a rest. (表目的)
They went there to visit their teacher. 他们去那里拜访老师。(表目的)
He woke up only / just to find everybody gone. 他醒来发现大家都走了。(表示结果)
My grandmother lived to see the liberation of China.
我祖母活到亲眼见到中国解放。(表示结果)
在某些形容词作表语,表示喜、怒、衷、乐后跟不定式表示原因。如:
在某些表示喜、怒、衷、乐的表语形容词后跟不定式表示原因。
I am very glad to see you.
I am so sorry to hear your mother is ill.
在带有enough 或too的句子里,也常用不定式作状语,表示程度。
    He was too excited not to say a few words.
He is old enough to go to school.
注意:强调动词不定式所表示的目的时,动词不定式可用in order to (为了) 或so as to (以便) + 动词原形。so as to 不用于句首。
He got up early in order to catch the first bus
The bus stopped so as to pick up passengers。
To look at him, you would like him. (表条件)
To tell you the truth, I have got no money about me.
To be honest, I know nothing about it. (修饰全句,独立成分)
二、分词作状语      
1.分词作状语的基本原则
 分词作状语时,分词的逻辑主语必须与句子的主   语保持一致。
分词作状语必须和句中主语含有逻辑上的主谓或动宾关系,否则不能使用分词作状语。
2.分词作状语的句法功能
分词或分词短语作状语时,可以表时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、行为方式、伴随状况等。表示时间关系的分词短语有时可由连词while 或when 引出。如:
Hearing the news, they got excited. (时间)
Be careful while / when crossing the street. (时间
Having been bitten by a snake, she was frightened at it. (原因)
Given a chance, I can surprise the world. (条件)
The cup dropped to the ground, breaking into pieces. (结果)
Having been told many times, he still repeated the same mistake. (让步)
The teacher came into the lab, followed by some students. (伴随状况)
3.独立成分作状语
有些分词短语,其形式的选择不受上下文的影响,称作独立成分。常见的有:
Generally speaking … 一般说来      
Frankly speaking … 坦白地说
Judging from … 根据……来判断    
Considering … 考虑到……
To tell you the truth … 说实话
★非谓语动词其它用法
一、疑问词 + 不定式结构
疑问词(who, which, when, where, how, what等)+ 不定式,这个结构在句中起名词作用,可充当主语、表语、宾语。如:
I didn’t know what to do. (宾语)
When to hold the meeting is not known yet. (主语)
My question was how to get so many books. (表语)
注意句型:Why not do sth. ? Why do sth. ?
二、不定式的主动和被动
1.不定式修饰的名词或代词和不定式逻辑上构成主谓关系时,不定式往往用主动形式。如:
Do you have a knife to cut the watermelon ? (A knife cuts the watermelon.)
2.不定式和它前面被修饰的名词或代词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,又和该句主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系时,不定式常用主动形式。如:
She has a sister to look after. (She looks after her sister.)
I know what to do. (I do what.)
3.不定式作表语形容词的关语,和句中主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,不定式多用主动形式,这是因为人们往往认为形容词后省去了for sb. 。
This book is difficult to understand.
This kind of fish is nice to eat.
4.在there be 结构中,当说话人考虑的是必须有人去完成某件事时,不定式用主动形式;如果说话人强调的事情本身必须被完成,则用被动形式。如:
There is a lot of work to do. (Someone has to do the work. )
There is a lot of work to be done. (The work has to be done. )
请注意下面两个句子的含义的不同点:
There is nothing to do. (无事可做,感到十分乏味。)
There is nothing to be done. (某东西坏了,无法使之恢复正常。)
三、不定式符号to 的保留问题
有时为了避免重复,可以用to 来代替前面的不定式,这种情况出现在下列动词之后:expect, hope, wish, mean, prefer, care, forget, want, try;或出现在be glad / happy, would like / love 等的后面。
如果在省略的不定式结构中含有:be, have, have been,这些词要保留。如:
I haven’t been to Hong Kong, but I wish to.
— Are you on holiday ?
— No, but I’d like to be.
— I didn’t tell him the news.
— Oh, you ought to have.
四、动名词作主语
动名词或不定式都可以在句中作主语,但在下列句型中常用动名词作主语。
It is / was no use / good + doing sth.
It is / was not any use / good + doing sth.
It is / was of little use / good + doing sth.
It is / was useless
如:It is no use crying over spilt milk. 覆水难收。
It is of little good staying up too late every day.
每天都熬夜没有什么好处
若主语和表语都是非谓语动词,应保持形式上的一致。
Seeing is believing.
To see is to believe.
眼见为实。
五、注意以下表达的意义区别
falling leaves 正在下落的树叶         
 fallen leaves 已经落下的树叶
boiling water 沸腾的水                
boiled water 烧开过的水
developing countries 发展中国家       
 developed countries 发达国家
I like swimming, but I don’t like to swim this afternoon.
Her job is giving piano lessons to children, but this Sunday her job is to teach the children how to dance.
The girl let out a frightened cry at the sight of the snake. (The girl was frightened. )
看到蛇,女孩尖叫起来。
His frightening shout scared the boys again.
The shout was frightening and the boys felt frightened. 他大吼一声把那帮男孩给吓跑了。
类似的还有:
an exciting voice 令人兴奋的声音       an excited voice 兴奋的声音
a puzzling look 令人迷惑不解的表情     a puzzled look 困惑的表情
 

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